The climate change agenda is a scam, part III - Solar Power
Solar power is something we have become accustomed to and accept as a clean, sustainable energy source. As with many other things created by governments, it appears to be a big scam. Solar energy is inefficient. The manufacturing of solar panels is extremely harmful to the environment. Recycling solar panels is difficult. It is because, while promoting solar power, government officials neglected to develop efficient and reliable recycling strategies and infrastructure.
The only place in the entire world that will recycle solar panels on an industrial scale is the first Return of Silicon Plant (ROSI) in France, which was due to open last month.
Currently, almost all PV panel waste goes into landfill and only very small numbers are recycled by labour-intensive and expensive means as they must be taken apart by hand.
In 2018, a senior Chinese solar official and research scientist with the German Stuttgart Institute for Photovoltaics, warned that solar panel disposal 'will explode with full force in two or three decades and wreck the environment'.
He also warned that there will be a huge amount of waste as they are not easy to recycle, adding: 'The reality is that there is a problem now, and it’s only going to get larger, expanding as rapidly as the PV industry expanded 10 years ago.
'Contrary to previous assumptions, pollutants such as lead or carcinogenic cadmium can be almost completely washed out of the fragments of solar modules over a period of several months, for example by rainwater.'
So tonnes of solar panels will end up in landfills and, while waiting to be recycled, will pollute the soil and water with carcinogenic substances.
Solar energy is unreliable because it is dependent on the sun, and during seasons when there isn't any (which can last for months in some places), these panels are useless.
The batteries used to store the energy from the solar panels are also a problem that is addressed in another article.
In a nutshell, lithium-ion batteries face the same issue: they require unsustainable materials, and recycling is even more difficult. Batteries are also a fire hazard, but there is no standard procedure for effectively stopping fires caused by such batteries. Water, for example, is not a good choice. Water and foam from extinguishers can worsen a lithium-ion battery fire by promoting chemical reactions and potentially releasing flammable gases. Lithium-ion batteries from small electronics aren't a big deal, but people use them to store solar power energy, as well as for electric bikes and cars. While such fires are not widely publicised, they are becoming more common as more people own e-bikes and e-cars.
How many users of these batteries are aware of this?
The following is an overview of solar power technology
Solar power technology is based on harnessing the energy of the sun and converting it into usable electricity or heat. It operates by utilising solar panels, which are made from photovoltaic cells. Photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells, are devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity using the photovoltaic effect. The photovoltaic effect is the process by which sunlight's energy is directly converted into electrical energy via the interaction of light with semiconductor materials in solar panels.
There are three kinds of solar photovoltaic technologies, each with its own set of materials requirements.
Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
These are the most common type of solar cells and are made of either monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon. The primary material for these cells is high-purity silicon.
Thin-Film Solar Cells
Thin-film solar cells are created by depositing extremely thin layers of semiconductor materials onto a substrate like glass or flexible materials. Thin-film solar cells are most commonly made of cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), or amorphous silicon (a-Si).
Perovskite Solar Cells
Due to their high efficiency and low production costs, perovskite solar cells are a newer technology that has shown great promise. The light-absorbing material is a perovskite-structured compound.
How are raw materials for solar panels obtained?
The raw materials for solar panels are primarily determined by the type of solar technology used. Crystalline silicon solar panels and thin-film solar panels are the two most common types of solar panels. Here's how each type of raw material is produced:
Crystalline Silicon Solar Panels:
Silicon Ingot Manufacturing
Silicon is the primary raw material used in the production of crystalline silicon solar panels. Silicon is one of the most abundant elements on the planet, but it must be highly purified before it can be used in solar panels. Silicon is typically obtained by reducing silicon dioxide (SiO2) with carbon at high temperatures to produce metallurgical-grade silicon. This metallurgical-grade silicon is then refined further to yield solar-grade silicon.
After obtaining solar-grade silicon, it is melted and solidified to form large silicon ingots. Wire saws are used to cut these ingots into thin wafers. The slicing process generates a significant amount of silicon waste, which can be recycled for other purposes.
Thin-Film Solar Panels
Thin-film solar panels generate electricity by combining various semiconductor materials. The raw materials used in various types of thin-film solar panels differ:
Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)
Cadmium (Cd) and tellurium (Te), both of which are relatively rare elements, are the primary raw materials for CdTe thin-film solar panels. Cadmium is typically obtained as a byproduct of zinc refining, whereas tellurium is frequently obtained as a byproduct of copper refining.
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)
Elements such as copper (Cu), indium (In), gallium (Ga), and selenium (Se) are required for CIGS thin-film solar panels. Copper and selenium are commonly obtained through mining, whereas indium and gallium are typically obtained as byproducts of zinc and aluminium production.
Amorphous Silicon (a-Si)
Amorphous silicon thin-film panels, like crystalline silicon, use silicon, but unlike crystalline silicon, it lacks a well-defined crystal structure. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) or plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) can be used to deposit it on substrates.
Metals commonly found in solar panel components
Aluminium is frequently used in the frame and mounting structure of solar panels. It is lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and provides the panel components with the necessary support.
Silver is used in the metal contacts on the front and back surfaces of solar cells as a conductor material. It has excellent electrical conductivity, which aids in the efficient collection and transmission of generated electricity.
Copper is another metal used as a conductor in solar cell electrical contacts. Because of its high electrical conductivity, it is widely used in electrical wiring.
Tin is used as a soldering material in solar panels to connect various components such as metal contacts and electrical connectors.
While lead is not used in the manufacturing of solar cells, it may be present in the solder used for electrical connections.
Which solar panel materials require mining?
Mining is required as part of the extraction and processing of several materials used in the production of solar panels. These materials are required for the production of photovoltaic cells and other solar panel components. Some of the key materials needed for solar panel production include:
Copper is typically extracted from copper ore deposits.
Bauxite ore is mined to extract aluminium, which is then processed and refined for use in a variety of industries, including the production of solar panels.
Tin is a metal that is primarily obtained from its ore, cassiterite, which is a mineral composed of tin dioxide (SnO2). The process of making tin involves several steps, including mining, processing, and smelting.
Tellurium and indium
Rare Earth Elements
In specialised applications, some advanced solar technologies may use rare earth elements such as neodymium, dysprosium, and terbium. These elements are mined and extracted from specific mineral deposits.
It is critical to remember that the extraction and processing of raw materials for solar panels can have environmental and social consequences, particularly for rare or critical elements.
Child labour has been a major issue in various mining industries that supply materials for solar panels. Despite the fact that politicians and human rights organisations are well aware of the situation, nothing is being done to help these children.
The manufacturing of solar panels is a complex process that involves multiple suppliers and manufacturers in different stages of the supply chain.
Metals are sourced from mines, refineries, or recycling centers, depending on their origin. They are then processed, refined, and manufactured into the required shapes and forms before being delivered to solar panel manufacturing companies.
Solar panels' negative environmental effects
Emissions from manufacturing
Solar panel manufacturing requires energy-intensive processes and the use of a variety of materials, including metals, chemicals, and plastics. These materials' extraction, processing, and transportation can result in greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants.
The extraction of raw materials used in the production of solar panels, such as silicon, silver, and rare metals, can have environmental consequences such as habitat disruption, water pollution, and energy consumption.
The management of solar panels' end-of-life poses challenges because some components may be difficult to recycle. Improper disposal of solar panels can pollute the environment.
Land Use and Habitat Disruption
Large-scale solar installations may necessitate a significant amount of land, potentially causing habitat disruption and land use conflicts. Land clearing for solar farms can have an impact on local ecosystems and biodiversity.
Large solar installations have a negative visual impact on the landscape, altering the aesthetics of natural or urban environments.
The cooling systems in some solar installations, such as concentrating solar power plants, can consume large amounts of water, potentially affecting local water resources.
Some thin-film solar panels contain toxic materials such as cadmium, which poses risks if not properly managed during manufacturing, use, and disposal.
Solar energy efficiency
☀The energy required to manufacture one standard crystalline silicon solar panel with a typical power rating of around 300 to 400 watts ranges between 1500 and 2500 kilowatt-hours (kWh). In a sunny location, it can generate 400 to 600 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity per year on average.
☀As you can see, it takes approximately 3-4 years to produce the energy used in its production, but only in locations with adequate sunlight exposure. It makes solar panels practically useless in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
☀Solar panels have a capacity factor ranging from 15% to 25%. The capacity factor of solar panels refers to how efficiently they convert sunlight into electricity over a given time period.
💡 Extreme weather conditions, such as hailstorms or large temperature swings, have the potential to damage solar panels. Long-term exposure to high levels of UV radiation and heat can also contribute to material degradation and decreased efficiency.
The concept of solar power energy is good in general, but sunlight isn't constant, and the materials used to capture it aren't sustainable and, for the time being, almost unrecyclable.
There is no safe and reliable way to store solar energy because lithium-ion batteries can be a fire hazard and fire safety procedures are not well developed.
Please spread the word because people need to be informed about it. If someone starts screaming at you that it is better than traditional sources of energy, tell them to reconsider because what's the point of replacing it with something that isn't better and we have no real plan how to deal with?
Massive amounts of taxpayers' money and investments are used to support it, when this money could be used to create genuine green energy.
Instead of utilising and improving the cleanest and most efficient nuclear energy, nuclear power plants are being closed down.
Pollution is a major issue that bioremediation can easily solve, but this well-known technology is sadly underfunded.
This is one of several articles aimed at helping you in combating the climate change agenda, which is being used to create global corporate enslavement. Read and share the first two parts.
Since my master's degree is in hydrobiology and waste water treatment, I must admit that I have some expert knowledge on the related subject. All life on Earth depends on water. I am aware of what is necessary for a safe environment.
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Updated on Octobre 28, 2023.